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Leiarius Leiarius longibarbis at a pet store in the Philippines. Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Siluriformes Family: Pimelodidae Genus: Leiarius Bleeker, 1862 Species Leiarius arekaima Leiarius longibarbis Leiarius marmoratus (Gill, 1870) Leiarius pictus (Müller & Troschel, 1849) Synonyms Sciadeoides Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 Leiarius is a genus of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Pimelodidae. It includes four species. Most of the genus' species are ornamental species kept as pets in the aquarium hobby. Contents 1 Taxonomy 2 Anatomy and physiology 3 Range and distribution 4 Ecology 5 Importance to humans 5.1 In aquaria 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography Taxonomy There are four species attributed to the genus Leiarius: L. marmoratus, L. arekaima, L. longibarbis and L. pictus.[1][2][3] However, at least one source considers L. arekaima and L. longibarbis species inquirendae of the genus.[1] Anatomy and physiology L. marmoratus can reach a little more than 100 centimetres (39 in) TL and has a maximum published weight of about 12 kilograms (26 lb).[4] L. pictus grows to 60 cm (24 in) TL.[5] These two species can be easily confused. The body of L. pictus is brown with darker brown spots, with a paler ventral coloring. In juvenile L. pictus, two parallel, pale bands curve from the dorsal fin down the body towards the caudal fin.[6] In young fish of both species, the maxillary barbels are very long and ringed with black and white.[7] As both of these species grow, their barbels will shorten in proportion to their size, and the caudal fin lobes, which are rounded in the young, become much more pointed.[6][7] As L. marmoratus grows older, it darkens and its dark spots develop into a marbled pattern.[7] Both species have a large, sail-like dorsal fin.[6][7] There are no external sexual differences.[6] Range and distribution L. marmoratus is found in the Amazon, Essequibo, and Orinoco River basins.[4] On the other hand, L. pictus is only found in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins.[5] Ecology L. marmoratus inhabits riverbeds, deep wells, and lakes. Young or sub-adults form large schools. This species prefers to lay over rock and tree trunks during the day, being more active at sunrise, sunset, and night.[4] Importance to humans In aquaria Both L. marmoratus and L. pictus are ornamental fish kept as pets in the aquarium hobby.[8] They have a voracious appetite and can grow rapidly, and therefore should be kept in a very large aquarium. These fish are peaceful towards other large fish.[7] Some sort of retreat to allow these fish to hide during the day is required.[6][7] These fish get very large and are not recommended for the average aquarist.[6] See also List of freshwater aquarium fish species References ^ a b Ferraris, Carl J., Jr. (2007). "Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types" (PDF). Zootaxa 1418: 1–628. http://silurus.acnatsci.org/ACSI/library/biblios/2007_Ferraris_Catfish_Checklist.pdf.  ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Leiarius arekaima" in FishBase. June 2007 version. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Leiarius longibarbis" in FishBase. June 2007 version. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Leiarius marmoratus" in FishBase. June 2007 version. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Leiarius pictus" in FishBase. June 2007 version. ^ a b c d e f "PlanetCatfish::Catfish of the Month::April 2003". PlanetCatfish.com. 2007-01-24. http://www.planetcatfish.com/cotm/cotm.php?article_id=146. Retrieved 2007-06-22.  ^ a b c d e f Axelrod, Herbert R.; Emmens, C.; Burgess, W.;Pronek, N. (1996). Exotic Tropical Fishes. T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 0-87666-543-1.  ^ Fenner, Robert. "Shovelnoses, Pictus, Tigers and More, The Antennae Catfishes, Family Pimelodidae". http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/pimelodids.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-22.  Bibliography Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2009). Species of Leiarius in FishBase. January 2009 version.