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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2009) A microexpression is a brief, involuntary facial expression shown on the face of humans according to emotions experienced. They usually occur in high-stakes situations, where people have something to lose or gain. Unlike regular facial expressions, it is difficult to fake microexpressions. Microexpressions express the seven universal emotions: disgust, anger, fear, sadness, happiness, surprise, and contempt.[1] They can occur as fast as 1/15 to 1/25 of a second.[2] Contents 1 History 2 Wizards Project 3 In popular culture 4 See also 5 References 6 External links // History Microexpressions were first discovered by Haggard and Isaacs. In their 1966 study, Haggard and Isaacs outlined how they discovered these "micromomentary" expressions while "scanning motion picture films of psychotherapy hours, searching for indications of non-verbal communication between therapist and patient" [3]This reprint edition of Ekman and Friesen's breakthrough research on the facial expression of emotion uses scores of photographs showing emotions of surprise, fear, disgust, contempt, anger, happiness, and sadness. The authors of UNMASKING THE FACE explain how to identify these basic emotions correctly and how to tell when people try to mask, simulate, or neutralize them. It features several practical exercises that help actors, teachers, salesmen, counselors, nurses, law-enforcement personnel and physicians -- and everyone else who deals with people -- to become adept, perceptive readers of the facial expressions of emotions. In the 1960s, William S. Condon pioneered the study of interactions at the fraction-of-a-second level. In his famous research project, he scrutinized a four-and-a-half-second film segment frame by frame, where each frame represented 1/25th second. After studying this film segment for a year and a half, he discerned interactional micromovements, such as the wife moving her shoulder exactly as the husband's hands came up, which combined yielded microrhythms.[4] Years after Condon's study, American psychologist John Gottman began video-recording living relationships to study how couples interact. By studying participants' facial expressions, Gottman was able to correlate expressions with which relationships would last and which would not.[5] Gottman's 2002 paper makes no claims to accuracy in terms of binary classification, and is instead a regression analysis of a two factor model where skin conductance levels and oral history narratives encodings are the only two statistically significant variables. Facial expressions using Ekman's encoding scheme were not statistically significant.[6] In Malcom Gladwell's book "Blink", which was written many years after "Emotional Intelligence" already brought Gottman's work to the attention of the public, Gottman states that there are four major emotional reactions that are destructive to a marriage: defensiveness, stonewalling, criticism, and contempt. Among these four, Gottman considers contempt the most important of them all.[7] Wizards Project Main article: Wizards Project Most people do not seem to perceive microexpressions in themselves or others. In the Wizards Project, previously called the "Diogenes Project", Drs. Paul Ekman and Maureen O'Sullivan studied the ability of people to detect deception. Of the thousands of people tested, only a select few were able to accurately detect when someone was lying. The Wizards Project researchers named these people "Truth Wizards". To date, the Wizards Project has identified just over 50 people with this ability after testing nearly 20,000 people.[8] Truth Wizards use microexpressions, among many other cues, to determine if someone is being truthful. Scientists hope by studying wizards that they can further advance the techniques used to identify deception. In popular culture This "In popular culture" section may contain minor or trivial references. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances, and remove trivial references. (June 2010) Microexpressions and associated science are the central premise for the 2009 television series Lie to Me. They also play a central role in Robert Ludlum's posthumously published The Ambler Warning, in which the central character, Harrison Ambler, is an intelligence agent who is able to see them. Similarly, one of the main characters in Alastair Reynolds science fiction novel, Absolution Gap, Aura, can easily read microexpressions. On Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Detective Robert Goren was adept in detecting microexpressions. The Bene Gesserit in Frank Herbert's Dune Universe utilize proficiency reading microexpressions in their roles as truthsayers. See also Nonverbal communication Body language Facecrime Facial Action Coding System References ^ P. Ekman, “Facial Expressions of Emotion: an Old Controversy and New Findings”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, B335:63--69, 1992 ^ http://face.paulekman.com/aboutmett2.aspx ^ Haggard, E. A., & Isaacs, K. S. (1966). Micro-momentary facial expressions as indicators of ego mechanisms in psychotherapy. In L. A. Gottschalk & A. H. Auerbach (Eds.), Methods of Research in Psychotherapy (pp. 154-165). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ^ http://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Citation/1966/10000/Sound_Film_Analysis_of_Normal_and_Pathological.5.aspx ^ http://www.gottman.com/49853/Research-FAQs.html ^ Gottman, J. and Levenson, R.W., (2002). A Two-Factor Model for Predicting When a Couple Will Divorce: Exploratory Analyses Using 14-Year Longitudinal Data, Family Process, 41 (1), p. 83-96 ^ Gladwell, Malcolm (2005). Blink, Chapter 1, Section 3, The Importance of Contempt ^ Camilleri, J., Truth Wizard knows when you've been lying", Chicago Sun-Times, January 21, 2009 Sound Film Analysis of Normal and Pathological Behavior Patterns, CONDON, W. S.; OGSTON, W. D., Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 143(4):338-347, October 1966. External links This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive and inappropriate external links. (June 2010) Paul Ekman's Personal Site Dr. David Matsumoto Free Micro Expression Training J.J. Newberry, director Janine Driver, director Joe Navarro, director Maureen O'Sullivan's Blog Lying and Deceit: The Wizards Project Scientists Pick Out Human Lie Detectors, MSNBC.com Lying Is Exposed By Microexpressions We Can't Control, Science Daily, May 2006 The Naked Face Facial Expressions Test based on "The Micro Expression Training Tool" "A Look Tells All" in Scientific American Mind October 2006 Microexpressions Complicate Face Reading, by Medical News Today August 2007 Deception Detection, American Psychological Association