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Battle of Palikao Part of Second Opium War The bridge of Palikao on the evening of the battle Date 21 September 1860 Location Palikao, China Result Decisive Anglo-French victory Belligerents United Kingdom French Empire Qing Dynasty Commanders and leaders James Hope Grant Charles Cousin-Montauban Sengge Rinchen Strength 10,000[1] Thousands of cavalry and infantry[2] Casualties and losses British:[2] 2 killed, 29 wounded French:[3] 3 killed, 18 wounded 1,200 casualties[3] v • d • e Second Opium War Pearl River Forts – 1st Canton - Fatshan Creek – 2nd Canton – 1st Taku Forts – 2nd Taku Forts – 3rd Taku Forts – Zhangjiawan – Palikao The Battle of Palikao (French: Le Combat de Palikao, Chinese: 八里桥之战, lit. "Battle of the Eight-Mile Bridge") was fought at the bridge of Palikao by Anglo-French forces against China during the Second Opium War on the morning of 21 September 1860. It allowed Western forces to take the capital Beijing and eventually defeat the Qing Empire.[4] Contents 1 Battle 2 Aftermath 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading // Battle The combined Anglo-French force which had recently occupied Tianjin engaged a Chinese army numbering thousands at Baliqiao. A fierce battle ensued, with the Anglo-French force inflicting massive losses on the Chinese army. Beijing was invaded thereafter.[5] On the Chinese side, Sengge Rinchen's troops including elite Mongolian cavalry that were completely annihilated after several doomed frontal charges against concentrated firepower from the allied forces. The French troops were led by Charles Guillaume Cousin-Montauban, who was then awarded the title of Count of Palikao by Napoléon III. The British land forces were commanded by Sir James Hope Grant.[6] Aftermath With the Qing army devastated, Emperor Xianfeng fled the capital, leaving his brother, Prince Gong, to be in charge of negotiations. The Anglo-French forces entered Beijing on 6 October. Anglo-French troops in Beijing began looting the Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace. Harry Smith Parkes and the surviving diplomatic prisoners were freed, Lord Elgin ordered the Summer Palaces be burnt down, starting on 18 October. The destruction of the Forbidden City was even discussed, as proposed by Lord Elgin to discourage the Chinese from using kidnapping as a bargaining tool, and to exact revenge on the mistreatment of their prisoners.[7] In the Treaty of Tientsin, the Qing court agreed to all Western demands, including the payment of indemnities, the acceptance of foreign diplomats at the imperial court in Beijing, and the liberalisation of the opium trade. Notes ^ de Saint-Amand & Martin 1912, p. 273 ^ a b London Gazette: no. 22452, pp. 4770–4771, 27 November 1860. Accessed 28 September 2010. ^ a b de Saint-Amand & Martin 1912, p. 277 ^ Mourre 1968, p. 500 ^ Boulger 1893, p. 383 ^ Grant, Sir James Hope in Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition ^ Endacott, George Beer. Carroll, John M (2005). A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. HK University press. ISBN 9622097421 References Boulger, Demetrius Charles (1893). China. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417916273. de Saint-Amand, Imbert; Martin, Elizabeth Gilbert (1912). Napoleon III at the Height of His Power. Charles Scribner's Sons. Mourre, Michel (1968). Dictionnaire D'histoire Universelle. Éditions universitaires. Further reading Luxembourg, Rosa The Accumulation of Capital Chapter 28: The introduction of the commodity economy [1]